Wednesday, 20 December 2017

TITLE:
ACTIVITY PROFILE BETWEEN WINNERS AND LOSERS OF FEMALE CLASS B OF PENCAK SILAT OLAHRAGA 28TH SEA GAMES 2015 SINGAPORE

 ABSTRACT

The Malay martial art of pencak silat is an important source of traditional acting technique. The purpose of the study was to compare the skills between winners and losers in women class B of Pencak Silat Tanding in 28th SEA GAMES in Singapore 2015, which is Silat Olahraga Women’s Class B 50-55KG SIN vs LAO Semi-Final SEA GAMES 2015 . All notational taking was using hand notational from the beginning until the end of the action period. A publicly available video recording of one video female Silat match from the 28th SEA GAMES 2015 in Singapore was chosen for the analysis. The game statistics consists of punch, kick, topple, sweep, block, block and kick, block and punch, block and sweep, fake kick, fake punch and others. Yet, motion categories Silat exponent’s motions were classified into 3 types of outcomes, Hit-Target (HT), Hit-Elsewhere (HE) and Miss Opponent (MO) to determine the accuracy of how many successful the technique was good and better from both exponents. Athletes will be trying to perform well as much as possible to achieve maximum performance. The losing team makes less movement than the winning team. While, the winning team makes much better movement during competition. The descriptive analysis will be used to determine the difference performance between the winner and loser in Silat match.

INTRODUCTION

Pencak Silat is a unique form of martial arts rooted in Malay culture, which stretches across Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei Darussalam, the Southern Philippines and Southern Thailand, and other places where populations who converse in the Malay language and refer to a common Malay ancestry found. The combination of the words Pencak and Silat into a compound word was made for the first time when an organization of the unity of Pencak schools and Silat schools in Indonesia was founded in Surakarta in 1948, which called Ikatan Pencak Silat Indonesia (The Indonesian Pencak Silat Association), abbreviated as IPSI (Kartomi, 2011).
According by Aziz, Tan, and Teh (2002) the native people in their struggle against their colonial rulers practiced Silat. With the withdrawal of the latter, Silat gradually turned into a cultural activity and was used for ceremonial and recreational purposes. Pencak Silat brings to light very different subjectivities, inter-subjectivities, and ways of objectifying the body in regional- and national-level practice (Wilson, 2009). Aziz and his colleague added that the traditional art form had since been modified into a structured competitive sport. The sport’s world controlling body, the International Pencak Silat Federation includes member countries such as the US, Japan and many European nations (International Pencak Silat Federation, 1999). There are various internationally sanctioned competitions such as the European Championship inaugurated in 1985, Southeast Asian Games (since 1987) and World Championships (since 1982).
Referring to Latiff, (2012) Seni Pencak Silat is the martial art of the Malay speakers of mainland Southeast Asia and the Indonesian archipelago.6 Seni means “beauty” or “knowledge,” pencak denotes trained body movements, and Silat carries the meaning of a fighting situation. He therefore translate the term as “the beauty or knowledge of the trained body in fighting.” 7 Seni Pencak Silat is the Malay art of self-defense. Kartomi, (2011) has documented that Pencak Silat (‘the art of self-defence’) is a contemporary umbrella term used in Indonesia and Malaysia and other parts of Southeast Asia to designate the hundreds of traditional and modern martial art genres that are performed either solo or as a duel, and with or without musical accompaniment. The two components of the term designate the two parts of the one Pencak Silat genre: pencak, a performance art, and Silat, a fighting and self-defense art, with the latter sometimes involving the use of weapons such as a sword or dagger (Kartomi, 2011).
 The sport of Silat consists of two categories, artistic and contact. The former focuses on choreographed movements and patterns of Silat. The latter is a weight-categorized, full contact, unarmed duel of similar concept to other conventional martial art sports like taekwondo and judo. Here, two Silat exponents square-off on an eight-meter diameter circle area. The match consists of three rounds of two minutes each with one-minute interval between rounds. Time stoppages by the referee are not included in the actual bout time, so the actual duration of each round and thus total match time is usually longer than the two and eight minutes scheduled, respectively. Points are awarded for toppling an opponent, successful defensive blocks, and offensive punches and kicks to the chest, abdomen and flanks, leg sweeps and throws (Aziz, Tan, & Teh, 2002). Latiff, 2012) noted that the basics of all styles are similar in their ‘kuda-kuda’ (horse stance), ‘tumbuk’ (punches), ‘tendang’ (kicks), ‘kunci’ (locks), and ‘tepis’ (deflections).
Silat can strengthen self-awareness, self-discipline, integrity, responsibility, loyalty, and cooperation among its practitioners (Latiff, 2012a). Referring by Wilson, (2009) Pencak Silat as ‘situated activities’ in their own right, attempting to ‘analyze activity in situ’ and treat ‘relations among person, activity, and situation, as they are given in a social practice, itself viewed as a single, encompassing, theoretical entity’. Latiff, (2012) also stated that Silat is no mere skill, but focused instead on moulding individual human qualities. Traditionally, training in Pencak Silat takes place through apprenticeship to a teacher, or guru, and instruction in the art is often inalienable from the genealogical relationships that link it to person and place (Wilson, 2009).
According by Shapie et al., (2009) Silat exponent’s motions were coded into 14 different types of categories, such as Punch, Kick, block, catch, topple, sweep, evade/dodge, Self-Release, block and punch, block and kick, block and sweep, fake punch, fake kick and others. Nevertheless, in this performance analysis, there will be have four major indicator including punch, kick, topple and sweep. Usually, for the fighting or sparing, the players will be categorized according to their weight. There are 11 classes, which starts from class A until class K (Latiff, 2012a).

MATERIALS AND METHOD

A publicly available video recording of 1 female Silat match from the SEA Games in Singapore (National Sports Council, Malaysia), Silat Olahraga Women's Class B 50-55KG SIN vs LAO Semi-Final was used for the analysis. The system was used to identify four different types of event performed by the 2 female contestants as well as the start and end of action periods.
Silat is Malay’s martial art. The battling methods in Silat are begin from the specialty of war. It is considered as the best self-protection moves it is possible that one on one or in gathering assault. Wilson (2009) has documented that the Silat example is known as "pesilat" and the Silat master known as 'cikgu'. The master will educate the type in the Silat ring known as 'gelanggang'.Usually the guru will teach all the secrets fighting techniques in the ring.
The commencement and completion of each individual action period was recorded and the duration was calculated by spreadsheet programming allowing durations (differences between action period end and start times) to be computed. The frequency, mean duration and percentage of total time were subsequently calculated. An intra-operator reliability study of fights was undertaken to establish the reliability of the method (Shapie et al, 2013).
 In Silat, there are different types of motion were coded as follows:
Punching
According to Latiff, (2012) the straight-punch and uppercut are the best techniques in Silat. If you hit your opponent with any of the two punches to the right place, he or she can die instantly. Exercises such as push-up and grip strength exercise can develop your punching strikes.

Kicking
The concept the higher the better is not relevant to Silat. You need to develop your kicking technique to right target to destroy your enemy. You can train this using the kicking target and punching bag. The front-kick is the best kick because the power of the kick is directly delivered to your opponent (Wilson, 2009).

Sweep
Referring to Latiff (2012), from standing, sweeps are throws or takedowns that primarily use the legs to attack an opponent's legs. On the ground, sweeps are techniques for reversing a grappling position. A sweep, when referred to in the context of ground fighting is a technique used to transition from a neutral or inferior position to a dominant position, such as a practitioner moving from in an opponent's guard to full mount, hence the alternative term 'reversal' as the dominance of positions have been reversed (Latiff, 2012b).

Topple
When a Silat fight between two Silat exponents is even, topple down technique can influence the result of the fight. The secret is to train this technique at least 100 times a day with your partner. You also need to record and improve this technique until it is perfect (Kartomi, 2011).

Evade/Dodge
The evade ‘elakan’ technique is carried out by silat exponent when he tries to evade an attack. This technique does not require the silat exponent to touch the opponent in fending off the attack. They are many ways of carrying out his defensive movement such as dodging ‘gelek’, retreat ‘mundur’, evasion to the side ‘elak sisi’, bending ‘elak serung’, jumping ‘lonjak’ ducking ‘susup’ and etc. (Anuar, 1992).

Self-Release
Self-release ‘lepas tangkapan’ technique is a technique to unlock any clinch or catch from an opponent (Anuar, 1992)

Block and Punch
The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using the leg to kick the opponent (Shapie, Oliver, O’Donoghue, & Tong, 2013).

Block and Kick
The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using sweeping technique to the opponent (Shapie et al., 2013).

Block and Sweep
The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using sweeping technique to the opponent (Shapie et al., 2013).

Fake Punch
An action which a silat exponent intends to confuse the opponent using a fake punch to break his opponent’s defensive posture (Shapie et al., 2013).

Fake Kick
An action which a silat exponent intends to confuse the opponent using a fake kick to break his opponent defensive posture (Shapie et al., 2013).

Others
Both silat exponents are either in posture position ‘sikap pasang’ or coming close to each other using silat step pattern ‘pola langkah’. 

RELIABILITY OF OBSERVATION                                

            The author analyzed all the activities and comparison classified each change motion in a single match. The observation was done by 1 hour. It requires experienced silat practitioners to analyze the data as the movement of both exponents were fast, needing close inspection.


STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

The observation generated data will be frequency counted. All the raw data generated by the notational was exported into SPSS for more detailed analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for Social Scientists, version 20. A descriptive analysis was used to determine the different of performance between winners or losers in silat matches.

RESULTS


Table 1.1 Silat Olahraga Women’s Class B 50-55KG SIN vs LAO (Semi-Final) SEA GAMES 2015 (LAO WON)
Action
Outcome
Hit Elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Not Available*
Total

LAO
SIN
LAO
SIN
LAO
SIN
LAO
SIN
LAO
SIN
Block








11
16
Block and Kick










Block and Punch










Block and Sweep










Kick
25
19
11
6
26
17


62
42
Fake Kick








3
6
Punch
5
2
10
6
5
2


20
10
Fake Punch










Self-Release










Topple
2
1
1
0
1
3


4
4
Sweep
1
4
0
0
3
2


4
6
Catch










Dogde










Others










Total

104
84

Table 1.2 Frequemcy profile of 2 exponents
Exponent
Punch
Kick
Topple
Sweep
Total
Winner
20
62
4
4
90
Loser
10
42
4
6
62
Total
30
104
8
10
152

Table 1.3 Mean for each team
Winner
(20 + 62 + 4 + 4) / 4 = 22.5
Loser
(10 + 42 + 4 + 6) / 4 = 15.5


Table 2.1 Silat Olahraga Women’s Class B 50-55KG THA vs LAO (Final) SEA GAMES 2015
(THA WON)
Action
Outcome
Hit Elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Not Available*
Total

THA
LAO
THA
LAO
THA
LAO
THA
LAO
THA
LAO
Block










Block and Kick










Block and Punch










Block and Sweep










Kick
10
6
9
12
4
5


23
23
Fake Kick










Punch
1
0
10
4
0
0


11
4
Fake Punch










Self-Release










Topple
0
0
1
0
0
0


0
1
Sweep
4
0
4
0
5
0


13
0
Catch










Dogde










Others










Total

47
28

Table 2.2 Frequemcy profile of 2 exponents
Exponent
Punch
Kick
Topple
Sweep
Total
Winner
11
23
0
13
47
Loser
4
23
1
0
28
Total
15
46
1
13
75

Table 2.3 Mean for each team
Winner
(11 + 23 + 13) / 4 = 11.75
Loser
(4 + 23 + 1) / 4 = 7 


DISCUSSIONS

Based on the result, descriptive statistics can be found by the SPSS software that being used to calculated all the possible data according to the notated exponent statistics. There are differences between in all actions in Silat Olahraga Women’s Class B 50-55kg Semi-Final and Final. In semi-final match, the frequencyfor winner is 90 and loser is 62. The winner (LAO) made 20 punches in all the entired tournament compared to loser (SIN) that only made 10 punches because loser cannot defend or block herself. Then, followed by kick, winner (LAO) did 62 times compared to loser (SIN) and this was lead the winner to win the game. The reason why loser get the lower number of frequency is mental fatigue and physical fatigue. For the winner, the factor of the frequency is high because of high in muscular endurance. This is because with high muscular endurance, the formation of lactic acid at muscle will be delay. Thus, the winner has advantage for giving the full strength in the game.

          In addition, in the match of Silat Olahraga Women’s Class B 50-55KG Final, the frequency for winner is 47 and loser is 28. The winner (THA) managed to do 11 punches compared to loser (LAO) that only managed to do 4 punches. While, followed by kick, both winner and loser did 23 times, but, winner (THA) did 13 times of sweep compared to loser (LAO). There are so much difference between the winner and loser in final match. Factor that leads for winner is has a good experience to defeat the opponent. She has a good strategy to make the opponent tired. The agility for winner is more function than loser. It is because of the difference type of training and for winner is better than the loser. The different of skill also can influence the accuracy of punch, kick, topple and sweep. Lastly is psychological factor from winner make the loser stress and cannot think properly during game. So, the winner’s psychology is more effective than the loser.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, this analysis shows that the comparison between the winner and loser in Silat Olahraga by post-event analysis from SEA Games in Singapore 2015. The study was complemented by the extensive work and other studies carried out by (Shapie, Oliver, O'Donoghue, & Tong, 2013). This study can provide a greater understanding of information for the Silat looking at the performance in high intensity and low intensity action. Descriptive analysis was used in this analysis to measure the two group about winner and loser in the game. The winner and loser can be analysed from four criteria such as punch, topple, sweep, and kick.  
However it is important to understand that high intensity actions will contribute more in the score points (i.e. outcome that count) rather than low intensity actions. There is also a range of frequency in attacking and defensive activities used by both of the exponents. The winner (red exponent) used more kicks than the loser which may reflect greater skill or fitness or both. However, it is still doubtful that these are the only factors that influence the match.
National silat olahraga athlete needs more tactical skills to be learned as it helps to reduce the mistakes during match. More than that, the national athlete must able to avoid error that might make them less capable to dominant the athlete from other country. The tactical and technical skills must be understood by the athlete to ensure they would have better performance in the next competitions. Indicators listed for the silat olahraga also important as it was the score they could collected for the match.
The data collected would help them to realize their mistakes that they could not know as they were focusing on the game. Coaches and athletes can sit together to talk about the previous match and share their experience towards the game for better improvement and preparations for the other competitions.

RECOMMENDATION

            It is recommended that both attacking and defensive skills should be balanced in their training programs. Frequencies of attacks must be high to get the points, but they have to increase their blocking frequencies in order to avoid the opponents to get their points. The skills development for both attacking and blocking need big range in time in the training programs. Coaches must consider these important things. Based on the result, the main factor to win the match is come from punching that surely hit the target, so it is suggested that the fighters must find the opportunity to punch their opponent as much as they can because they will get only one point for one punch. Meanwhile, the fighter need to reduce the frequency of punch hit elsewhere because there is no point given for that punch. For the sweep skill, in order to decrease the frequency of missed target, the fighter need to focus, currently in good position and try to read opponent’s next movement. Topple that hit the target is so important because it gives the fighter so much points. So, the recommendation here is the fighter must tightly grab the opponent so that he will not escaped and can be taken down.
            There are some general considerations that should be taken as the principles of the training for speed; fighters must warm up enough before the training, fighters must be fresh at practice speed, movement is made from simple to complex from easy to difficult and of movement slowly becoming faster. Other considerations are including the fighters must perform cooling, so that the situation returns to normal gradually and provide the full recovery time after training speed, before entering other types of exercises.
            This study has a limitation as the data may not be accurate because of the limited sources. The video used in this study is from YouTube. Certain parts or minutes of the match cannot be seen because of the replay, blocking view, and so on. However, the purpose of this study is to compare that four skills between winners and losers, so it may not be too disturbing the results.

REFERENCES

Chua, Y. P. (2012). Asas statistik penyelidikan. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Mc Graw Hill.
Sport Singapore (2015). Pencak Silat Tanding Women's Class B Final LAO vs THA (Day 9) | 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. Retrieved from  https://youtu.be/ml0sFzboUnI
Sport Singapore (2015). Pencak Silat Tanding Women's Class B SIN vs LAO Semi-Final (Day 8) | 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/SghP76tXRQo
Wilson, L. (2009). Jurus, jazz riffs and the constitution of a national martial art in indonesia. Body & Society, 15(3), 93-119. doi: 10.1177/1357034X09339103


APPENDICES


N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Statistic
Statistic
Std. Error
Statistic
Winner (LAO)
90
1.91
.070
.664
Loser (SIN)
62
2.10
.099
.783
Valid N (listwise)
62





 
 

Descriptive Statistics

N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Statistic
Statistic
Std. Error
Statistic
Winner (THA)
47
2.32
.164
1.125
Loser (LAO)
28
1.89
.079
.416
Valid N (listwise)
28









 

 



 

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TITLE: ACTIVITY PROFILE BETWEEN WINNERS AND LOSERS OF FEMALE CLASS B OF PENCAK SILAT OLAHRAGA 28 TH SEA GAMES 2015 SINGAPORE   ABSTRAC...